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power transmission & system conditions

2101 - Elements of System Protection
2102 - Types of Protective Relays
2103 - Monitoring System Conditions
2104 - Fault Characteristics  
2105 - Generator Protection
2106 - Transformer Protection
2107 - Bus Protection
2108 - Motor Protection
2109 - Line Protection
2110 - Pilot Protection
2111 - Protection for System Stability
2112-Testing and Commissioning of Protective Schemes
2113 - Power Line Carriers
2114 - Fault Investigation and Analysis
2115 - Introduction to Static Relaying
2116 - Coordination of Protection Devices
2117 - Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems
2118 - Energy Centre Operations
2119 - Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices
2120 - Telecommunications Protection II - Installation and Configuration
2121 - Supervisory Control System (SCADA)
2122 - Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention
2123 - Fault Calculations and Relay Settings
2124 - Testing Techniques
2125 - Programmable Logic Controllers
7501 - Review of Fundamentals
7502 - Power Transmission 
7504 - System Frequency and Tie-Line Control 
7505 - Power Dispatching
7506 - System Security
7507 - Operating Under Abnormal Conditions
7508 - System Restoration
7510 - Transmission System Protection
7511 - The Effect of Deregulation on Operations 
7512 - Power Dispatch Under Deregulation
7513 - Transmission Control
1101 - Grid Dynamics - Control Performance Compliance
1102 - Emergency Operations NERC & Regional Coordinating Authority : Eastern Interconnection
1102 - Emergency Operations NERC & Regional Coordinating Authority : Western Interconnection
1103 - Grid Dynamics High Voltage, Transmission, Safety, & Power System Ops
1104 - Grid Dynamics - Synchronizing Islands 
1105 - Grid Dynamics - Undervoltage and Underfrequency 
1106 - Grid Dynamics - Voltage Control 
7101: Electrical Fundamentals, Basic Electricity 
7102: Electrical Fundamentals, Properties of AC Circuits 
7103: Electrical Fundamentals, Power and Power Factor 
7104: Electrical Fundamentals, Three Phase Systems
7514: Controlling to NERC Standards : Interconnection Operations
7516: Controlling to NERC Standards – Generation Control and Performance
7517 - Controlling to NERC Standards: Aspects of System Operations 
7518 - Controlling to NERC Standards: System Transactions & Coordination

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2118 - Energy Centre Operations  
The objective of this module is to review, for the benefit of relay personnel, the responsibilities of the power system operators and the activities that take place in the energy control center. The operation of protection schemes is of vital importance to the correct functioning of the power system. Complete cooperation between power system operators and relay personnel is essential, and communication must be maintained in both directions. 
After study of this course and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects: 

◦The overall objectives of the power system operator. 
◦Clearance procedures, i.e. isolation of equipment. 
◦Frequency control: economic load dispatch. 
◦Daily load forecast. 
◦Daily generation schedule, including spinning reserve. 
◦System overload, falling frequency, load shedding. 
◦Inter-ties to neighboring utilities, power interchange. 
◦Generation unit characteristics, i.e. type of prime mover. 
◦Incremental cost of generation. 
◦Rate of start-up and load change availability. 
◦Frequency control by AGC (automatic generation control). 
◦Turbine governor droop characteristic. 
◦Generator load angle. 
◦Control of excitation, reactive power. 
◦Transmission line impedance characteristics. 
◦Effect of conductor resistance, i.e. heating. 
◦Shunt capacitance, charging current, Ferranti effect. 
◦Special switching procedure on long lines. 
◦Inductive voltage drop along transmission lines. 
◦Shunt capacitors and shunt reactors. 
◦Power angle across transmission lines. 
◦Effect of transmission line voltage on power transfer. 
◦Power transfer distribution through a complex network. 
◦Power angle limit for stability. 
◦System operator actions to improve system stability. 
◦Effect of equipment outages on system operation. 
◦Planned outages, system operation precautions. 
◦Forced outages; states of "alert" and "emergency". 
◦System separation, i.e. islanding. 
◦Energy center communications. 
◦Energy center information presentation. 
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 2119 - Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices  
The objective of this module is to draw attention to the high voltage hazards that can occur on telecommunication circuits entering substations and power stations, and to review the protection devices that are used to combat this problem. 
After study of the course and the associated workbook the participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them in their day-to-day activities. They will also be able to answer test related questions on these subjects: 

◦Communication line interface. 
◦Routing of telephone cables by Telco. 
◦Effect on telephone lines of power system faults. 
◦Longitudinal common mode induction. 
◦GPR -Ground Potential Rise. 
◦Remote ground and local ground. 
◦High voltage hazards to personnel and equipment. 
◦Location of demarcation interface. 
◦Standard telephone line protection. 
◦Air gap arrestors. 
◦Carbon block protectors. 
◦Gas tube protectors. 
◦Solid-state protectors. 
◦Limitations of protectors. 
◦Disadvantage of voltage clamping (i.e. circuit shut down). 
◦Mutual drainage reactor. 
◦High voltage interface. 
◦Dedicated entrance cable; features. 
◦Grounding of dedicated cable. 
◦High voltage special protection. 
◦Neutralizing transformer. 
◦Neutralizing reactor. 
◦Isolation transformers. 
◦High voltage relay for DC signals. 
◦Safety precautions for personnel. 
◦Optical isolators: teleline isolator. 
◦TUCON fiber optic link. 
◦Fiber optic cable and multiplexer. 
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2121 - Supervisory Control System (SCADA)  
The objective of this course is to discuss the application of SCADA systems (EMS, and DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION), and to present the main features of modern installations including equipment layout, communications, operations and maintenance. 
After completion of this course and associated workbook, the participant will be able to understand the following concepts, and apply them to his day to day work activities. He will also be able to answer related test questions: 

◦Typical applications of SCADA. 
◦Basic features of SCADA, i.e. remote data collection, transmission, processing, display, remote control. 
◦Polling by RTU address. 
◦RTU reporting by exception; 2 second updates. 
◦Control commands; select -check -operate sequence. 
◦RTU data collection. 
◦Analog points, transducers, analog digital conversion. 
◦RTU inputs; analog, status points, pulse accumulation. 
◦RTU outputs; control of switching, load shedding, generation. 
◦Review of binary numbering system. 
◦Modems, signal transmission. 
◦FSK, PSK, A.M.. 
◦Rate of signal transmission, baud. 
◦Components of 32 bit signal. 
◦Communication line arrangements, i.e., party-line, or separate radial connections. 
◦Master station assembly and peripherals; 
◦Front-end communications controller: functions. 
◦Display computer, display stations, operator input. 
◦Standby (redundant) station, failover. 
◦Applications software, executive software. 
◦CPU priority tasking. 
◦On-line diagnostics. 
◦Operator interface, workstations. 
◦Operator input, display response. 
◦Power system equipment status, tagging. 
◦Alarm system. 
◦Logging, reports, trends, sequence-of-events. 
◦SCADA installations, power supply. 
◦Preventive maintenance activities. 
◦Functional tests, test sets, test points. 
◦Software update, modification. 
◦Maintenance records. 
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7510 - Transmission System Protection  
The objective of this course is to examine the function of protection schemes from the point of view of the transmission system operator. Details of the major types of protection relays are discussed with the emphasis on function rather than mechanical construction. After completion of this course and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day working activities. 

• Causes of electrical faults 
• Fault characteristics; changing parameters 
• Common types of 3-phase fault 
• Effect of impedance on magnitude of fault current, i.e. generator impedance, transformer impedance, line impedance, and fault impedance
• Unbalanced phase conditions due to fault
• Elements of the protection scheme 
• Protection relay input and output signal
• Circuit breaker tripping circuit
• CTs and VTs (PTs)
• The need for back up protection
• Protection zones
• Power system grounding
• Protection relay sensitivity, selectivity, and operating speed 
• Reporting and analysis of protection relay operations 
• The principals of differential protection, instantaneous overcurrent, inverse time overcurrent, directional overcurrent, distance relays (impedance relays), mho relays, pilot protection
• Application of protection schemes to generators, transformers, feeders, transmission lines, and bus bars 

Power Transmission Online Training Classes including bus protection,line protection, pilot protection, generator protection, transformer protection, protection devices and SCADA
power transmission & nerc standards
power transmission & transformer protection
power transmission & energy center operations
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Power Transmission Online Training Classes including bus protection,line protection, pilot protection, generator protection, transformer protection, protection devices and SCADA
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